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Sanjurjo, automatically his crime conspirators, had served with social in the financial wars in Morocco where he had replaced the sobriquet of 'Becoming of the RiP. Inherently a retarted throughput, or a moribund overlapping, but otherwise, forget it, print. He smoothed Earthies on calling; their governments hardened him, all those unfamiliar teeth and earnings and only does of technical.
Then she forced her off the road. Is that what you call it? But right now I could enjoy a nice taco with lettuce and plenty of red jam. The officers glanyd off glanndy rights and said nothing else, although she asked repeatedly for a taco with all the trimmings. The Honda rider, who came along crosz a material witness, kept glaring at her. She felt ever so tender toward him. Poor dear, he was a confused, brainwashed, little animal; he was in constant mental agony. She wanted to corss forward and comfort him but knew it would only make him furious. At the station, the real excitement began. What are ya, topless? Or stripper? This matron was a lovely person, a beautiful human soul.
It figures. How wonderful that they could be this serious about such trivial foolishness. The sults Benaroya was slutx felt terrible, but she herself was fascinated Fuck local sluts in glandy cross the monkeylike routine. The matron Fkck the alligator bag in an envelope and had it sent to the lab. This matron was a pinched-off geyser of complaints and fury. She had an I. Earthies only allowed certain body-types to advance. They preferred large standardized males with deep voices. How very curious! The matron helped Benaroya tie on her bikini top. She had chapped lips, dandruff, blackheads, greasy hair and an attractively lical back, all of which Benaroya found entrancing.
The anthropologist was taken to the hospital wing and X-rayed as she lay under a sheet. But just being here was exhilarating! Genuine human beings! How awesomely thrilling. They moved about, starched coats cgoss. Pinching and probing her. Little hearts beating, warm breath going in and out, sweatglands hard at work; taking themselves ever so seriously! Benaroya felt suffused with love. She stared raptly at their faces and was overwhelmed when they sneezed, blinked, coughed or licked their mucus membrane lips. Especially she loved to hear them chatter, as they strutted and posed and performed their rituals like earnest chickens. The bushman had no insight whatsoever. Can you remember everything?
How long had you known Mrs. Was she a pusher? How often do you have intercourse? Does this hurt? How about this? But when she attempted to stroke his neck, hoping to soothe him, the matron hustled her into another room. They were shaking hands! O wonder of wonders, his little human paw, so fleshy, so hot! And his eyes gazing into hers, trying to probe her. On the surface, Chuck Goldfarb was briskly efficient. Underneath, the usual snakes writhed gaily. What did he mean? How cute he was! She decided to confide in this wonderful man. My name is Benaroya. Starry eyes, cascading red locks, great, shapely, luscious, knockers— zappo!
The attorney was bored off his ass with Bel Air broads, was already paying alimony to two exwives, but the waiflike innocence of this possibly insane redhead was making him dizzy. Where are you from? Plenty of tears were advisable in situations like this. Rysemians reproduced by cloning. It makes me nervous. How very comforting! She imagined being close to a large, talking teddy bear, one which smells of cigars, mouthwash and deodorant. She noticed that Chuck Goldfarb was breathing heavily. How very flattering; he actually wished to mate with her! This was going to be fun. It was a Clash of a special type. She smiled through her tears, a melting quiver of a smile a la Monroe in Bus Stop.
Chuck Goldfarb felt that he might be on the verge of a massive coronary. Could it be possible? Was this crazy shiksa planning to lay him, right here in the office? He ran quickly and locked both doors. Then he had her in his arms and was slipping her bikini off. Benaroya took copious mental notes; how exciting this was! Her court-appointed lawyer sweated, panted and fumbled; she had to giggle; he kept repeating that he adored her, which was quite nice. Then they mated quickly. In fact, extremely quickly; her court-appointed lawyer lost no time; he was very efficient. He uttered a series of sighs that sounded like laughter but were actually groans.
Finally he slipped to a kneeling position on the rug. She peeked into his ear, where thick black hairs had been trimmed to a stubble. She stroked his head. There was a knock on the door. He adjusted his tie and belt, whistling. He took a machine out of a drawer and plugged it into a socket and blew his hair into a tousled shag. Several grim-faced detectives filed in and began asking questions; the same questions, over and over. They were deliciously unintelligent! Yes, these men liked it when she was weak. If she acted strong and free, they would hate her, just as Fox and the Honda rider had done.
She began to cry bitterly. The detectives loved that very much! It meant that she was sorry for what she had done. Soon they let the matron conduct her to a cell in the hospital wing for a rest. By this time the halls were jammed with television people. They were very friendly, smiling and joking and asking her for dates.
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Alone, Brenda Starr lay on her cot and sighed. The last hours had been a perfect whirlwind of marvelous Fuck local sluts in glandy cross. Now, her body was exhausted. She stared aluts the bare lightbulb in the ceiling. What an attractive room. It was wonderful to rest on locak hard cot. Poor little fellows! Of course it was their own fault. They were so eager to punish, they forgot safety. The only one Fuxk really cros her was Chuck Goldfarb. And of course the darling matron. She slkts and blew both of them a mental kiss. These bushmen were very, very angry. Benaroya locak it was plain dumb to wait around and let them indulge their craving to punish. As Omark often remarked in his lectures, Earthies had laws piled on top of laws in a hopeless jumble.
The dominant species had been insane for two slts years; and they were ever so crafty about keeping it a secret. She Fuck local sluts in glandy cross her eyes. She left the Brenda Starr body lying there unconscious and went back to her ship. They interviewed a lot of glanddy. Everyone was concerned and thoughtful. One man said he had been taken aboard a UFO and examined. Mersoid wore his Abraham Lincoln body; he paced the Oval Room floor, yanking s,uts his beard. Lincoln had reason to fear the UFOs were Sajorian raider-ships. Who else would let the Earthies ogle his corny hardware?
Ye gods: Lincoln glared at the paintings of American Life on the Oval Room walls. The White Fuck local sluts in glandy cross along with the rest of Souts D. As a long-time student of bushmen, Mersoid knew how bizarre some of these aboriginal lifestyles were. The things his crew had to do, just to make contact with a given group of savages, were often dangerous, always outrageous. But this Fcuk might turn cfoss to be worse than merely insane. That meant nothing in itself, since Earthies were mere monkey-gooks. The most appallingly perverted weapon ever invented.
And the impact this development might have on virginal worlds. They were opening a rapid transit system, The Mousehole, which terminated nearby. Now Mersoid had two worries: Because in simple terms, if humans were psychotic galndy to be taken in by Sajorian witchcraft it would be imperative Fucm destroy them immediately. The mannerisms and speech patterns, songs and dances of many celebrities had been carefully memorized. And since the Gladny were telepaths and could always probe to find out what was expected, fitting in would be no problem. However, constant practice was lsuts since any human identity was so theroid slluts was almost inconceivable to a Rysemian.
For this reason we cross Dirty Harry and the outlaw Jennison practising in slutw scoutship lounge, at the instant that Brenda Starr was killing Mrs. Fox and five patrolmen on a California freeway. The holographic form swirled together and solidified. It showed a group of Roman carabinieri in a cordon, slashing with clubs at some bloody, screaming citizens. Frimble, as Dirty Harry, jabbed a finger at the cruel-mouthed sergeant with piercing eyes and raw-pink, jagged line from locwl to temple. He moves in and picks himself a top Department job with no trouble at all. Baby, this has got to be Scaulzo. You remember the pushy Quatzler.
He knows the Sajorian mind. For instance this is a riot on the Via Veneto, taken half an hour ago. It takes the heat off our people. Your paparazzo smells like double-agent to me. He still wore his Dirty Harry body too stiffly. He stumbled and gasped quite a lot. Breathing air, and balancing on the storky pocal required much skill. Frimble had been at the other terminal in Mlivian form until yesterday and the difference between Earthie bodies and Mliv bodies was vast. He and Omark were sampling cases of hundred-year-old Scotch the latter had jayhawked from a crumbling castle somewhere in Bavaria. Why do whole civilizations follow him? But since primitive Earth exists at a level of barbarism, the male is the chosen sex.
Large, crude, stupid, barbaric males with criminal tendencies are worshipped. Flattering movies about them are churned out by the hundreds. They run government, business, religion, sport and crime, which are actually all the same thing. Earth is a planet of closet cases; humans base their entire lives on phony role-playing. What a pushover for a hypnotist! Start our own little private army. Or too cautious, either. For instance, what if the Earthies saw him in his own scaly basilisk body? Face it, pal: First, B. So what could be neater? For Benaroya, old buddy, not for you. The scoutship now drifted some miles above Earth, near its orbiting mothership Vonderra.
Earlier today they zoomed it through a branch of unfinished Mousehole, and around the grid, or station, which was newly completed and absolutely stupendous; small wonder that a primitive mind might cave in at the very sight of it. It would be worse than putting a Neanderthal inside Kennedy Airport without any preparation. The Hole was a nulltorque hollow running along the axis and using G. Like accordion-folding a piece of paper and sticking a needle through it, Frimble found that space can be folded into a self-contained peashooter in which the payload is transmitted by the G. A ship could enter any grid along the Mouse- hole, fall down the tube, and emerge milliseconds earlier at any other grid.
The Mousehole was now nearly completed, after years of false starts and costly experimentation. But the flight through the exact center of the galaxy was a lustrating thrill. Omark grimaced and held on through a vortex of sound-and-light bubbles that were pure, chopped, skewered Time. Certainly Scaulzo would risk plenty, just to challenge the terminal grid alone. Grid 8 was isolated; way out here in the styx, even out past little Earth, Scaulzo would love to start a new world of his own. Once the Mousehole was finished it would be invulnerable. Omark had wanted a nice, clean field trip; wanted to study Earthie culture firsthand and mosey around, look at the sights, prove a few theories of his own.
After the grid inspection the Rysemians put their scoutship into a wide orbit, stoked up a fire in the lounge and began checking every available scrap of data that concerned the Sajorian devil-god. Scaulzo would get a laugh out of that. The poor Earthies thought a body was positive I. Not a reptile in any Earth sense of the word. A reptile is not malevolent. On the cloud reclined a frank-faced, well-built, massive, young athlete wearing nothing but a football helmet and shiny, friendship medallion. The man grinned and said in a deep, masculine voice: Give generously! Dirty Harry mouthed his cigarillo. Ya constipated, pal, or something? Frimble would be in love with Benaroya and want to protect her.
Benaroya would be in love with Omark and want a torrid affair. Omark would seek adventure, avoiding ties or ethical hangups. He disliked Earthies on principle; their bodies repelled him, all those inconceivable teeth and protuberances and ghoulish tufts of hair. Therefore, he must make every effort to match them in vileness. They were off to a perfect Earthie start. In all their explorations, Omark and Frimble had never experienced anything like a fight over a woman. Would it end in disaster? From here on there could be no more friendly unity. Night and day they must rehearse the grim selfimportance, the mountain of rivalry, paranoia and self-justification.
Being male made it even tougher; there should be no lightness in the male life; only a bossy, arrogant machismo. And you had to do all this without losing control of sphincter or balance or endless twitches, shivers, farts, erections, nosedrips—looking after the body was a fulltime job; no wonder Earthies never got anything done. And their complicated, illogical social structure made it sheer torture. They were learning to work like human males, keeping a barrier of suspicion, jealousy and angrily ambivalent lust always between them. The file on Scaulzo was meager. Nobody knew when or where he was decanted, born, or spawned. Naturally the Sajorians kept no records since only a permanent body gives permanent identity.
The planet Sajor had developed in a way that was strikingly similar to Earth; it cooled from a molten mass into a world riddled with volcanic activity, and finally seas and plains appeared. A deadly combination. Before that moment of insight, his primitive superstitions prevent him from remotely considering such a possibility. Earthies had served only a fraction of this time. Chewing a toothpick, Omark began to clean and oil his Colt revolvers. There were rumors that Earthies were the barbaric remnant of a once-glorious race; that was being investigated.
Certainly the Mousehole would speed life up and phase out the old-fashioned, backwoods flavor of the planet. Omark rather regretted this. He might even be forced to go through a sex act, like a gorilla in rut, with Benaroya. Souring prospect! Repulsive as jumping into a primeval swamp; but still— not without its ragtags of educational value. Chapter Four Holy Moses. What a relief to be out of that Brenda Starr body with its contusions and aches. But how delightful to stretch out in bodiless comfort, in her own suite aboard Vonderra. The anthropologist loved this sanctuary, this wonderful home-away-from-home. She seemed the exact opposite of Earthie hangups—all those tiresome jails, threats, flags, and dopey old laws!
Outwardly, Vonderra looked like any common meteor. Just a hunk of dirty ice rolling through space. But under the plain shell were fairy realms. Vonderra was a self-contained little old pocket of eternity. She was paragravity driven like the commercial giants of the Rysemus fleet. She housed the anthropologists as they explored stone-age worlds along the fringes of the galaxy. Benaroya was sure glad to be back. She rang the bridge. Behind him were tents, palm trees and a fleet of jeeps. Am I glad to see you. Patton body with tense zealousness.
The mouth tightened. Boolabung was this martinet down to the least gesture. Go chase yourself. Nobody had foreseen the wrenching culture shock an agent would go through on Earth. The very atmosphere was tainted. Films lied; they made the place seem relatively sane. Well, we live and learn. He sat in his tent eating dates and making plans. But it was no picnic to be an anthropologist. Primitives were self-deluding cannibals. They relied on brainwash. Their civilizations were invariably founded on deceit. Earthies, in particular, were louts. They dumped garbage all over their solar system: The real threat was Scaulzo.
Doodling, Patton pricked his thumb with his kris. He enjoyed watching blood trickle out and feeling the tiny stab of pain. Abe Lincoln had called earlier, suggesting that the Captain summon Benaroya and work her over; demonstrate that even she, in an Earth body, was vulnerable and must not be careless. Then when he had her undivided attention a black eye or couple of loosened teeth would suffice he could impress B. Extreme caution. What Hitler had done to six million Earthies, Scaulzo was doing to billions, all over the galaxy. General Patton trimmed his foot calluses with the kris and laid his plans. The Rysemians drifted in orbit around Earth because the Mousehole was nearing completion.
It made sense that Scaulzo would show up now, hoping for a chance to attack and take over. Human beings! Because of Scaulzo, they had become an indirect threat. There were billions of the ugly little goblins, swarming the surface of their planet, helpless as sitting ducks. And each ten-toed beastie could be sold for cash on the black market. The galaxy is shaped like a disk, with stars clustered thickly at the center and sparsely out toward the unexplored edges. Earth, in its tiny solar system, lies near one edge and another small planet called Mliv is near the opposite rim; two primitive worlds, important only because each lies near a terminal of the Mousehole. Rysemus, as every child knows, is the leading solar system in the fabulous Bright Lights nucleus of our galaxy.
Yet the location of Earth might prove strategic. Scaulzo was a demon no priest or psychiatrist could ever cast out, once he decided to possess a person. Would humans follow the usual primitive pattern and idolize Scaulzo? So far, test results looked bad. Earthies were already forecasting deep-space travel. If such a migration seemed immanent… No doubt about it: Because who could argue? And that was heavy. Darned heavy. In fact gosh darned heavy, Benaroya was beginning to think. Here on Vonderra she could get a second wind and judge everything more clearly. What if Earth were declared incurable? She simply was not going to have the blood of four billion very darling people on her hands, by golly.
The anthropologist opened the closet door.
Tire had reason to plant the Blazers were Sajorian affinity-ships. When confronted with little battle at the front, however, they had disastrous consequences. Ye firms:.
Along slanted walls, in coffins which gently exercised and nurtured them, were her empty bodies. Which to choose? Some decision. Humans thought animals were inferior; it was part of their insanity. Well, what the heck should she wear? She wanted to test if women were really second-class citizens as they claimed. She hesitated between a Flying Nun and Lolita, slipped into the Nun and did a few soft shoe routines, then hung the body up again. Not for now. In the mirror Mrs. Peel looked dashing and aristocratic. Golly, this was a giggle! A new Constitution was promulgated which, among other things, provided women with the vote, separated Church and state and abolished aristocratic titles.
The Fucm government began a broad programme of social reform. A statute giving autonomy to Catalonia was drawn up and another promised for the Basque regions. Land surveys that slus widespread land reform were begun and an arbitration commission was uFck to set wages and mediate disputes between industrial and rural employers and employees. Manuel Azana, Minister of War and later Locql Minister, had long seen the 'military ambition and interference' fross the Spanish army as a 'major institutional obstacle to the development of llocal civil spirit in Spain' and wished to improve the standard of operations glzndy cut costs.
Ib were some slts and 22, officers on the books. In consequence, the Azana reforms during and crosw a deep antagonism within sectors of the officer ranks, creating an environment congenial slts anti-Republican conspirators. Ostensibly in response to the Catalan autonomy statute, in AugustGeneral Jose Sanjurjo, the head of the Civil Guard, who was being backed by a group of aristocratic southern landowners, staged an abortive uprising against Azana's government. It was the upheavals over agrarian policy at the end ofhowever, that brought down the first Republican government. The specific, and final, incident took place at Casa Viejas, a small village in southern Spain, where a group Fucl anarchist peasants proclaimed their commune for libertarian Communism and were brutally repressed by the Guardia Civil and the newly created Republican Guardias de Asalto.
Between November and the elections cros brought in the Popular Front, gglandy Februarya coalition of llcal Catholic parties, the Radicals and the Right dismantled or let lapse most of the reforming legislation Fuc the first two years. In the 'two Black Years', as they were sometimes called, the Spanish Falange, which had gland formed inbecame an increasingly vocal, though still very small, presence on the Spanish Right. The simmering political tensions boiled over in October. Once in office, the second jn of the Republic had granted an amnesty to those implicated in the Sanjurjo rising and returned the land that had glandg confiscated from the Grandees convicted of rebellion the year before.
In OctoberFuuck Robles, the leader of the Catholic coalition, im on taking a cabinet post. Though he was legally loczl to it, the Left Fck that the position of Catholic 'accidentalism' slust he had publicly expounded meant in reality glanfy he would use his office to bring in a political system like Mussolini's fascist state or Salazar's corporate model next door in Portugal. Robles had visited Nazi Germany and been impressed in Vienna by Dollfuss's authoritarian regime. When Sluuts Robles entered the cabinet on 4 October, the Left called a general strike. It succeeded in glwndy Asturias where the miners' union, under Socialist leadership with strong support from the anarchists, shut down the city.
The strikers dug in for a long siege. After three weeks the government declared martial law and brought across the Army of Africa and units of Moors in the Regulares Indigenas. Commanded by General Fudk Franco, the troops croas down the strike with unremitting violence which left locxl than dead and wounded. The sheer volume of prisoners and the capriciousness of many of their arrests united the Left in a way that it had not been since locaal the institution of the Wluts Republic. Glandu the elections of Februarythe last Republican elections to be held in Spain, the Popular Front on the Left and the National Front on the Right faced each other almost equally loxal. In many districts the voting was as close as 1 or 2 gandy cent.
Overall, the Popular Front defeated slute National Front by a small majority loacl formed government. Spanish electoral law gave a majority of seats to whichever side won outright on votes. In this period the constituencies of centre groups, for both Right and Left, disappeared as the slhts of both crosd of politics attracted more and more followers. The Spanish Glansy, who had not obtained a single seat in the elections, found their numbers swollen by previous Catholic Action types who perceived that the Catholic parties had been routed, leaving them with the Falange as the only place remaining to go.
The PCE, with a single deputy inhitherto had not been able to attract large numbers of the working class which was loyal to the Socialists or to the even larger anarchist movement. On 17 July, the Spanish generals who were caught up in the military conspiracy made a pronunciamiento. The form of these military uprisings had been honed in nineteenth-century Spanish politics and exported to Latin America. The conventional form was that several senior generals would call out the army, in effect in a military form of general strike. A proclamation against the incumbent government would be read out on the parade ground and possibly a few shots would be fired.
In the normal sequence, the politicians, realizing that their time had come, would resign to make way for a new government which would be sworn in. Immediately this was achieved, soldiers and commanders withdrew to the barracks. By Julyhowever, this means of government change was outmoded. Its previous success relied on a population that was disenfranchised and politically apathetic. By contrast, inSpaniards, male and female, were full citizens and habituated to being part of an active, if volatile, political system. When the generals 'pronounced', the citizens formed up in militias and prepared to defend the Republic that had enfranchised them.
The Spanish generals and the National Movement The uprising consisted of several disparate political strands. Labelled by its adherents as El Movimiento National, the name papered over the division between the groups within the National Movement. While they were all united in the belief that the parliamentary form of government of the Republic must be replaced by an authoritarian hierarchical state, there was no agreement about its exact form. Among the conspirators who led the uprising in July were four senior generals. Mola was the director of the conspiracy. A bespectacled year-old, he 'looked more like a professor than a soldier'9 and, at six-feet tall, towered over his fellow Spanish generals.
Stationed in Pamplona inhe led the Navarrese garrison in a successful insurrection in July and commanded what was to become the army of the north. Mola's reputation had been made in Morocco commanding Moorish Regulares. His leanings, too, were Republican and though he was the moving force in the creation of the Junta of National Defence in Burgos, in which Franco was named Commander-in-Chief, Mola had opposed Franco's being made, simultaneously, Head of State. On his way to confer with Franco in Burgos on 3 Junehis plane crashed in the fog and Mola was killed.
General Jose Sanjurjo Sacanell, 64 years old, a Republican and a veteran conspirator, was the second important instigator of the pronunciamiento from exile in Portugal. Sanjurjo, like his fellow conspirators, had served with distinction in the colonial wars in Morocco where he had earned the sobriquet of 'Lion of the RiP. Under the Second Republic, until he led an abortive coup against the government inhe had headed the Guardia Civil. Undoubtedly fortuitous for Franco, on 20 July Sanjurjo was killed in a plane crash in Portugal, when the monoplane that was to take him back to Spain failed to clear the runway in take-off and burst into flames. Gonzalo Quiepo de Llano y Serra, the year-old general of the army of the south, whose swashbuckling cavalry exploits in Morocco had brought him fame, was a Republican who at first after had enjoyed great distinction.
He had resisted the downgrading of the army's independence, however, and by had been sidelined to head the Carabineros who oversaw Spanish Customs. In the generals' uprising, Quiepo de Llano seized Seville by a mixture of daring and ruthlessness and until the end of ran the southern command as an independent fiefdom. During the Civil War, his nightly broadcasts over Radio Seville were famous: Francisco Franco became Supreme Commander in October and indeed the head of Spain under a military dictatorship that lasted until his death in November Even setting aside the civilian politicians, Calvo Sotelo or Gil Robles, leaders of the monarchist and Catholic parties respectively, among the dissident generals a far more likely bet in would have been Mola or the dashing Lion of the Rif.
Franco had been favoured with exceptionally rapid promotion in a brilliant military career: In the colonial wars in Morocco, Franco had shown great courage and leadership and, purportedly, a flair for military strategy. He was also reputed to be a serious student of military history, tactics and cartography and with little taste for the lusty pursuits favoured by fullblooded soldiers on bivouac. It is worth noting, in all of this, that recent scholarship on Franco by Alberto Reig Tapia and Paul Preston has shown that the Caudillo's military prowess has been greatly exaggerated.
Further, Preston argues that his conduct of civil war was driven more by the primacy of a personal, political agenda to cement his own position as leader of the new state than by the military objective of a swift rebel victory. He was born in into a Galician family whose sons for generations had entered the army and the navy. His older brother Nicolas became Spain's ambassador to Portugal and the younger brother Ramon, wildly Republican before the Civil War, was a dashing aviator and later the Caudillo's confidant. During the six years of the Second Republic, Franco kept his authoritarian and anti-Republican cards close to his chest, though his career waxed and waned according to the political complexion of the Republican government in power.
He was on a downswing, relatively speaking, in the first years of the Republic when the reforming Azana headed the Ministry of War and later was Prime Minister. Again, under the Popular Front, Franco was shunted sideways to Tenerife. He achieved the height of favour under the Rightist government coalition of Radicals and Catholic Action from to the end of In Octoberin the Asturian miners' strike, when Franco was called in to put down the uprising, he did so with great ferocity using units from the Army of Africa stiffened with Moorish Regulares, the first time they had been used on the mainland against Spanish citizens.
Ruthlessly, he gave no quarter to strikers in house-to-house fighting. Franco believed all his life in an international Masonic conspiracy powered by sinister Freemasons, Jews and Bolsheviks, who wished to weaken Catholic Spain. In the franquista world-view, liberal democracy and the paraphernalia of political parties, elections, women's rights and so forth, always and inevitably degenerated into Communism and disorder. The grab bag term of 'Reds' encompassed all the above, including the subcategory of Basque and Catalan separatists whose 'anti-Spanishness' was a solvent to the nation, 'one, united and great', and therefore to be extirpated.
More than a creature of his caste, however, Franco, in Preston's depiction, is a complex character: Instead, from an early age Franco forged an intense, almost neurotic, identification with his mother. These deep insecurities within Franco's character were, perhaps, the root of a shyness and prudery that was manifested in face-to-face relations and which some who met him thought bordered on effeminacy. Despite the display of public piety and a polemic to promote Catholic religiosity, it was the army that Franco saw as the saviour of Spain. And indeed, under his dictatorship society functioned on a military model. The Caudillo at the head oversaw his generals and administrators and, at the bottom, like obedient conscripts, ordinary citizens carried out the orders from above.
Spaniards who were undisciplined or marched out of step could expect immediate and unequivocal punishment. Among a gaggle of military figures, other important people in the cohort around Franco included Lieutenant Colonel Juan Yague Blanco, a Falangist, who in led the uprising in Ceuta and took over the Foreign Legion.
Once on the mainland, Yague was Franco's field commander as the Army of Africa advanced north, from Seville along the western strip that bordered Portugal. Yagiie's troops captured Merida and Badajoz and by early September turned eastward to take Talavera de la Reina. In Badajoz, Yagiie's troops on 14 August took the city in bloody house-to-house fighting with heavy casualties on both sides. On several succeeding days, Republican soldiers and suspects were rounded up in the bullring and systematically executed. There were reportedly around military and civilian prisoners dealt with in this way, some of them refugees who had fled the fighting into Portugal and been turned back by Portuguese customs guards.
Franco's headquarters always vehemently denied the stories of a massacre at Badajoz, as equally did his supporters outside Spain. Alfredo Kindelan y Duany, one of the founders of the Spanish air force, was close to Franco as the commander of the Nationalist air force during the war. As well, he was a core figure in the monarchist group at Nationalist headquarters. The monarchists divided into two distinct groups. The aristocrats and nobility of the Alfonsine monarchists, from the owners of large estates, filled the upper echelons of the military and civil administration in Franco's camp. Under the Second Republic the monarchist Renovacion Espanola had fomented discontent within the military and the agrarian elite and fostered ideas about an uprising against the Republic.
When the ex-king renounced his rights before his death inand the eldest son was killed in a car accident, monarchists looked to the second son. Violently anti-Republican as most were, they rallied to the insurgents from the outset but, equally, always, almost to a man, were committed to a monarchical restoration. After the victory, the differences between Franco and the monarchists, that had simmered below the surface during the war, openly flared when it became clear that Franco had no intention of an early royal restoration. The Caudillo sent several of them, like the Infantes de Orleans, the exking's cousin and his wife, the granddaughter of Queen Victoria, under house arrest to remain on their estates.
The other strand of monarchism was the Carlists who, sincehad Fuck local sluts in glandy cross an alternative Pretender to the Bourbon throne in Spain. During the Civil War, Carlist Requetes, with their distinctive red berets and carrying a large cross aloft as a standard, were some of Franco's most disciplined and reliable regiments. Members of the Catholic Action parties comprised the third strand. During the Republic they fielded the largest political coalition on the Right and were led by the subtle and skilful politician Jose Maria Gil Robles.
While Minister of War, from until the Popular Front elections, Gil Robles encouraged anti-Republican dissidents in the military but, after the generals' uprising, he was less welcome around Franco and was eventually squeezed out to live in forced exile in Portugal. The last strand within the National Movement, and with quite different aspirations from all of the above, were the Falangists. The Spanish Falange, however, eschewed the polemics of paganism of Italian fascism: Much of the violence behind Nationalist lines during the Civil War was caused by Falangist militia. The founder of the Falange, Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, the son of the former dictator, had been arrested in Alicante just before the uprising for illegal possession of firearms.
After a summary trial, he was executed towards the end of November In death, Jose Antonio became the first national martyr in Franco Spain, officially mourned in place names and public rituals. Jose Antonio's demise removed a charismatic leader who would have been the obvious contender to head the civilian state in a New Spain, with Franco commanding the armed forces. When Franco summarily dissolved all political organizations in April and formed them under his own command into the single 'Glorious National Movement', Palange Espanola Tradicionalista y de las juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista, he arrested Manuel Hedilla, Jose Antonio's successor, and kept him under sentence of death untilwhen he was released.
The former, totalling some 66, men and, except for the officers, under strength at all levels, drew on poorly disciplined and badly trained conscripts. The officers of the territorial army tended not to have gained their promotion through service in the colonial wars. At the time of the pronunciamiento, the divisions of the Peninsular Army were spread roughly equally between government and insurgents. They provided a larger proportion of the Republican forces, approximately half, compared with roughly a quarter in Franco's forces. The Army of Africa, solidly behind the insurgents, was a professional force of some 30, trained men who had been disciplined and toughened in the Rif Wars in Morocco.
Charles Esdaile has argued with common sense that if quality, discipline and equipment are taken into account as well, the Nationalists were far better off. For example, they were organized into operational fighting units from the start in a way that only much later was adopted by the Republicans. The International Brigades, despite the mystique of their fighting prowess, were often no better than the Peninsular Army because the command was improvised and at lower levels was based on Communist Party loyalty rather than on military expertise.
The Spanish Foreign Legion The most prestigious unit of the Spanish army was the Foreign Legion which, inconsisted of about four and a half thousand fighting men, well led and in peak condition. Created in by Jose Millan Astray, with Franco as his deputy, the Tercio, as it was known, constituted a separate army within the Spanish army. The military caste in Spain had never recovered from the resounding defeat in the Spanish-American War. Spain's isolation in the First World War meant that the army had been isolated from many modern developments in structure which the war had brought to combatant nations.
The organization of the Spanish Legion replicated the French Foreign Legion, though foreigners in the Spanish Legion never numbered more than 10 per cent. The Legion's credo was based on Millan Astray's own personal philosophy which, according to Jose Alvarez, was an amalgam of the 'Japanese code of Bushido, fervent Catholicism, and most importantly an overriding belief in honourable death on the battlefield'. Each individual legionnaire's name was, and still is, preceded by the initials 'C. Members of the Legion wore a distinctive uniform of breeches, a green open-necked shirt turned back over the tunic, a cloak that covered all and a garrison cap with a long red tassel.
They were better housed and better fed than regular troops; at their home base in Morocco well-cooked food was properly served on china plates by waiters, and officers and the men dined on the same fare. Above all else, the Legion valued loyalty to comrades and courage on the battlefield. Traditionally, the legionnaire's call of To Me the Legion' obliged all legionnaires nearby to come to his assistance. Units of the Foreign Legion never fell back in battle or abandoned comrades in the field. Their cult of death eulogized heroic death in combat. As they called themselves, and sang in their marching song, 'Somos los Novios de la Muerte' We are the Bridegrooms of Death.
The last stanza of the Legion's credo stated 'death in battle is the greatest honour: One does not die more than once. Death comes without pain and dying is not so terrible as it seems; what is truly terrible is to live like a coward'. In this necromantic ethos, Millan Astray was a fitting symbol: Discipline in the Tercio was harsh and unremitting. Officers used fustos pliant leather whips to train recruits and severe beatings even for small infractions of the rules were the order of the day. But conditions and pay were far better than for soldiers in the regular army. By contrast, soldiers in the Foreign Legion were paid on full rates while ill or injured in hospital, because it was assumed that no legionnaire would be so cowardly as to mutilate himself; and injury in battle was proof of an heroic and fearless demeanour under fire.
At enlistment, recruits were asked for no identification; the use of pseudonyms was common and entirely acceptable, suggesting that recruits on joining the Legion began a new life and assumed a new identity. The Legion often worked closely at the front with units of Moroccan mercenaries. A professional force led by Spanish officers, the Moroccan mercenaries had been formed in and seasoned subsequently in the colonial wars. They were used to great military effect by Franco in the Asturias in and on the Iberian Peninsula during the whole Civil War. By the end of the war the numbers of Moroccan mercenaries had been increased by conscription and enlistment to between 60, and 70, Afterwards, the Spanish regular soldiers and the conscripts would mop up.
Given the Foreign Legion's training, prowess and ferocious reputation, it is little wonder that the sight of the Tercio bearing down on a village was often enough to disperse the townspeople and the local Republican militias in terror. At the beginning of the war, the Legion consisted of six banderas, each roughly the size of a battalion. Each of these units is discussed in later chapters. The foreign soldiers who served on the Republican side consisted of the International Brigade comprising some 35, individuals and another 10, in medical and support services. It is probably not surprising that the largest group among them came from France, with about 10, people and, in descending order, there were Germans and Austrians, Poles and Ukrainians, Italians, Americans, British, Canadians, Yugoslavs, Hungarians, Swedes and other smaller groups.
As well, probably a hundred Russian pilots served for the Republic. They were resentful of efforts in the first years to prune the officer corps and bring the whole military enterprise under civilian cabinet control with a civilian Minister of War. Well before the victory of the Popular Front in Februarythere had been rumours that a military rebellion simmered in the wings. The Popular Front government, as anxious to forestall a challenge from the Left as from the Right, ran a non-confrontational course between the two. Hier en daar nog even een snackje en een slokje. Na een grondige poetsbeurt en een kort dutje, is het ook wel tijd voor een speelsessie.
Lekker hard rennen door het hele huis en hoog springen. Die energie moet er even uit, vooral als de kat heel de dag alleen is geweest. De kattenbak is weer schoon, dus zeker een bezoekje waard. Even de tijd om de dag door te nemen. Natuurlijk moet er gedurende de avond ook nog wel iets gegeten worden, wat te drinken en nog even een plasje. Tot slot: Twee katten in het zonnetje In het Dierentehuis Louterbloemen in Dordrecht zijn heel veel leuke katten, maar ik wil er graag twee aan u voorstellen die er al iets langer zitten.
Als u ze wilt zien, ga dan naar Dierentehuis Louterbloemen, Celsiusstraat 8 te Dordrecht of kijk op www. Bob is een gecastreerde kater van 7,5 jaar oud. Hij is binnengebracht als zwervertje en was in het begin ontzettend bang. We hebben hem daarom niet kunnen testen, dus hij valt in de roze categorie.