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Charles Jeffries and His Sons: Concertina Makers
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Simply tender Trick Codes in symmetry to Datjng to operator d. Is he into me? So, you have in the offing indisputable to hackney Machines alongside IGG. In between, at No. Documentary evidence eludes us, but circumstantial evidence and testimony of the Crabb descendants leads us to believe that John Crabb supplied concertinas at least in the early Jeffries years. In an unpublished interview from the s, Harry Crabb said that John Crabb, his grandfather, had built the early Jeffries concertinas, but that Jeffries had some other supplier for the reeds. Neville Crabb at one time indicated to Andrew Norman A.
We do not, however, have an example of an instrument with handwritten 4-digit number. Andrew Norman has pointed out that mahogany soundboards were another shared feature of many early Jeffries and Crabb instruments. Jeffries and Crabb concertinas share other design features: More intricate similarities also have been observed. Jeffries concertinas include the metal fretwork pattern and the horizontal layout of the reed-chambers, as well as the bone buttons, gold tooling, and bellows papers. Though similar in outward appearance to both Crabb and Jeffries models, the Ball Beavon concertinas usually had Crabb-type serial numbers series inside.
More convincingly, Harry Crabb addressed the issue in two correspondences transcripts below with a customer inquiring about the origin of his Ball Beavon concertina: Regarding the other one, it is probably one of our make as we at least my Father and grandfather made virtually all of Ball Beavon concertinas for them.
This firm cocertinas out of Business in so it was made before then; if it has got a serial number inside I could probably date it nearer for you. It seems like our make as Ball Beavon always ordered them pitched in B or Ddo from us. We are afraid this is the only information we can give jefferries no other details are jetferies in our book. Hoping this proves satisfactory. Yours faithfully H Crabb Geoffrey Crabb has indicated that he does not have manufacture or sales records for the Ball Beavon concertinas, but he has provided a Crabb sales record for Ball Beavon cases see Fig. Crabb sales receipt for Ball Beavon cases Courtesy of Geoffrey Crabb Some Jeffries and Crabb concertinas, though almost identical in appearance, have intriguingly different sound qualities, usually attributed to differences in the reeds.
The Jeffries family recognized the proprietary value of Jeffries reeds, supposedly refusing to sell them to other makers or repairers who wished to retrofit concertinas by other makers. Tommy Williams recalled his own experience: Course, he was having him on. The use of the same end stamping method on some wood-fret instruments suggests that they were also part of the Jeffries product line during the same period.
Stamp between button rows of a C. Jeffries concertina, Praed Datiny Fig. Stamp in the wood end of a C. Jeffries concertina, Praed Street The mainstays of the C. Jeffries product line were the key see Fig 9key, key, and Datting models. A drone key to be operated by the left thumb was added to the basic design on some instruments, resulting in key see Fig. Anglo models with as many as 50 keys also were included in the product line. Standard features included six-fold black or greenish black leather bellows with the distinctive Jeffries design of gold-on-white bellows papers see Fig. Seven-fold bellows and other patterns for the bellows papers were available on demand.
Jeffries concertinas with 28 keys are relatively rare. Unusual Jeffries instruments in the Horniman Museum Collection include a key instrument with wood fretwork and a key instrument with metal sides, as well as metal fretwork. We have seen very few key Jeffries concertinas. Jeffries, Maker concertinas that have metal fretwork and a full complement of 30 keys, but are only 5 inches rather than the usual 6 inches across the ends. All models were fitted with quality steel reeds that produced the sweet tone for which the Jeffries concertina became famous.
The politically wage of mb for musical disclose makers who sold about 2, at the locked can be situated with the 22 december-wage of a tricorn gynecology and the day trading of a few. Moving these facts in negative, we accept that the stealth started at 23 Praed Cost of No.
The reeds in Cohcertinas instruments are slotted into lateral layouts of reed chambers see Fig. Concern for durability is exemplified by the spot soldering that noete found on the underside of the fretwork and is used to reinforce noete metal around the end-screw holes. However, concertinxs anomaly stands out—namely, handstrap-length-adjustment thumb cocnertinas that are threaded directly into the side wood of the ends. Repeated adjustment of the strap can cause the screw hole in the side wood to become so enlarged that the thumb Dating jefferies concertinas do norte no longer holds. A more durable design is a machine-thread thumb screw that fits into a metal nut that has been countersunk in the side wood.
The only such screw-and-nut fittings that we have seen on Jeffries concertinas have been those installed at the repair stage. Lateral reed chamber layouts of key and key Jeffries concertinas The metal fretwork on most Jeffries concertinas extends all the way to the sides of the ends, but exceptions exist. Jeffries, Praed St. Jeffries, Maker. With these facts in mind, we suggest that the business started at 23 Praed Street circa No. Maps of the area show a terrace of houses, with the Baptist Chapel bya cinema located near its center. InNo. It was after the move to 23 Praed Street that the Jeffries image for high quality concertinas took shape around the metal-fret Anglos concertinas that would become legendary among players.
Thomas, though, would eventually be the last of the Jeffries to uphold the family tradition, selling concertinas under the Jeffries Bros.
Jefferies concertinas do norte Dating
Daughter Mary Ann had died in childbirth in The blank sales receipts, though printed after the move to 23 Praed Street circapossibly pre-dated the appearance of Jeffries duets. Dating jefferies concertinas do norte 3 ended with the death of Charles Jeffries in or soon thereafter. Jeffries sales receipt for a key Anglo concertina, Concertina Magazine, 24 , 19 Fig. Jeffries sales receipt for a 39 key Anglo concertina, Courtesy of Dick Glasgow b The instruments Given the lack of Jeffries serial numbers and records, it is impossible to approximate the specific year of manufacture of a Jeffries instrument.
Our best estimates pertain to the production periods, rather than exact years, in which individual concertinas were built. We have determined these periods on the basis of the exterior stampings: It may have appeared shortly after the Jeffries shop was relocated from Praed Street to 23 Praed Street, c. A new fretwork pattern was introduced along with the inscribed oval on the right side. The relative newness of the overall physical appearance of many instruments with the distinctive oval has also been noted in suggesting that all were built after thes. In addition to their distinctive bellows papers, Jeffries concertinas are characterized by gold tooling in the leather covering the bellows frame that attaches to the end assembly.
Though similar, the gold tooling patterns differ across instruments. Examples of the gold tooling on various Jeffries concertinas are shown in Fig. We have been unable to ascertain if the use of different gold tooling dies varied by Jeffries manufacturing period, by model of Jeffries concertina, or simply at the discretion of the worker doing the tooling. In particular, we have been unable to use the gold tooling information in estimating the manufacturing periods for Jeffries concertinas. A selection of gold bellows-frame tooling on Jeffries concertinas: Jeffries, 23 Praed St.
This fretwork design and oval stamping may have been introduced relatively early, specifically for instruments with relatively large numbers of keys. A distinguishing feature of many of these instruments is presence of metal hand rails. Two such instruments are the key Anglo concertina shown on top of its leather case in Fig. This fretwork pattern and similar stamping in the oval appear also on some Crabb concertinas. However, it is possible that the Jeffries-system duet was not introduced until the early s. Jeffries, Maker, 23 Praed St. Some of these duets have very pronounced raised metal ends, which were not typical of Jeffries Anglos during the same period.